**Comparing to find the difference:**

*Jessica is 8, Bradlee 6. Jessica is how much older than Bradlee?*

Using snap cubes for years, Jessica’s age would be shown with an 8-stick, Bradlee’s with a 6-stick. To show the difference between their ages, a 2-stick would be snapped off or “just” separated from the 8-stick.

**Subtraction as “Just” Separating**

**Take away: **

*Eight birds in a tree, six flew away. How many still in the tree?*

Using snap cubes for birds, a 6-stick would be removed or “just” separated from an 8-stick to show the birds still in the tree.

**Counting on: **

*Six apples and two more. Now how many apples?*

Using snap cubes for apples, one cube and then another would be joined or “just” combined with a 6-stick to show two more apples in succession.

*Multiplication as Combining “Neatly” (by 2s, 3s, 4s…)*

**Grouping or repeated addition: **

*Four cans of tennis balls, three balls to a can. How many tennis balls?*

Using snap cubes for tennis balls, a 3-stick would show the number of tennis balls in a can. To show the number of tennis balls in four cans, four 3-sticks would be joined or combined “neatly” (by 3s).